Tufted carpets are made on a large sowing machine apparatus with many needles. Yarns are sown into a woven backing and if it is not dyed, that piece is called Greige Goods".
Bonding adhesive is then applied to the backside of the Greige Goods to hold yarns in place. The bonding adhesive is made of latex, clay, filler, oil, and water. Afterwards, a second woven backing is placed on the underside to add dimensional stability. Dimensional Stability is what helps the carpet maintain its size and shape.
While over application of solvents or prolong wetness can cause delamination, the most common cause on newer carpets is manufacturing. Sometimes there is not enough bonding adhesive or there is too much clay and/or filler in the mix. An indication that there is to much filler and/or clay is that the backing is stiff and backing adhesive is brittle. Other problems associated with bad latex are buckling and excessive fuzzing.
Another resource for seeing how tufted carpet is made can be found at http://www.royaltycarpetmills.com/slides1.html
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